Cyclic photophosphorylation involves the use of photosystem-I. Iron atoms in cytochromes and in iron-sulfur centers have a central function as redox carriers,
The cyt-b6/f complex contains two different bind-ing sites for conversion of quinones, one located at the stromal side and the other at the luminal side of the thylakoid membrane (Fig. In cyt-f one bond of the Fe atom coordinates with the terminal amino group of the protein and the other with a histidine residue. The iron sulfur Rieske protein protrudes from the lumen into the membrane. Peter Mitchell (Great Britain), who established the chemiosmotic hypothesis of energy conservation , also postulated a so-called Q-cycle, by which the number of trans-ported protons for each electron transferred through the cyt-b/c1 complex is doubled. The iron atom in the heme can form up to six coordinative bonds. Cysteine residues of proteins within iron-sulfur centers (, The electron transport by the cytochrome-, The number of protons pumped through the cyt-, Studies with mitochondria indicated that during electron transport through the cyt-, the principle of Q-cycle operation in the photosyn-thesis of chloroplasts. In contrast, we identified an FtsH-dependent loss of photosystem II and cytochrome b6f complexes in darkness upon sulfur deprivation. In prokaryotes, the process of photosynthesis helps in the production of energy and not for the formation of biological molecules. 3.24). The other PQ dif-fuses away from the cyt-b6/f complex through the lipid phase of the mem-brane to the stromal binding site of the cyt-b6/f complex to be reduced via semiquinone to hydroquinone by the high reduction potential of heme-bn. Plastohydroquinone (PQH2) formed by PS II diffuses through the lipid phase of the thylakoid membrane and transfers its electrons to the cytochrome-b6/f complex (Fig. It plays no role in photosynthesis, but it does have a function in the mitochondrial electron transport chain . 3.28). In heme-a (not shown) an isoprenoid side chain consisting of three isoprene units is attached to one of the vinyl groups of heme-b. Cyt-b6 containing two heme-b molecules is almost vertically arranged to the membrane and forms a redox chain across the membrane. The cytochrome b6f complex is a dimer, and each monomer is composed of eight subunits. The CF 0 subunit forms the transmembrane channel and is embedded in the thylakoid membrane. Functional implications of pigments bound to a cyanobacterial cytochrome b6f complex FEBS Journal 272, 2005, p. 585-592 ; J.P. Dekker 1, E.J. This ring has a planar structure. The number of protons pumped through the cyt-b6/f complex can be doubled by a Q-cycle,
further in UPSC-BASE. Upon acidification of the proteins, the sulfur between the Fe atoms is released as H2S and for this reason it has been called labile sulfur. The electron then passes to plastocyanin before returning to chlorophyll. Cytochrome b6f is similar to what is found in mitochondria. The cyt-b6/f complex is a mem-brane protein consisting of at least eight subunits. Cyt-b6 has two binding sites for PQH2/PQ, one in the region of the lumen and one in the region of the stroma. The analogy of the cyt-b6/f complex to the cyt-b/c1 complex suggests that the Q-cycle also plays an important role in chloroplasts. However, chlorophylls contain Mg++ as the central atom in the tetrapyr-role, whereas the cytochromes have an iron atom (Fig. In total, the number of transported protons is doubled by the Q-cycle (1/2+1/4+1/8+1/16…+ 1/n = 1). In cyanobacteria, which also possess a cyt-b6/f complex, the electrons are transferred from this complex to photo-system I via cyt-c instead of plastocyanin. The two remaining bonds of the Fe atom coordinate with two histidine residues, which are positioned vertically to the tetrapyrrole plane (Fig. Study Material, Lecturing Notes, Assignment, Reference, Wiki description explanation, brief detail, The cytochrome-b6/f complex mediates electron transport between photosystem II and photosystem I. The electron transport by the cytochrome-b6/f complex is coupled to a proton transport. Epub 2019 Dec 9. Studies with mitochondria indicated that during electron transport through the cyt-b/c1 complex, the number of protons transferred per transported electron is larger than four (Fig. Cyclic Photophosphorylation happens with the help of photosynthesis, a process of producing carbohydrates by green plants using carbon dioxide and water in the presence of sunlight. The amino acid sequence of cyt-b in the cyt-b/c1 complex of bacteria and in mitochondria corresponds to the sum of the sequences of cyt-b6 and the subunit IV in the cyt-b6/f complex. The electron begins in a pigment complex called photosystem I in cyclic electron flow. Tobacco plants with reduced amounts and activities of both the chloroplast cytochrome b(6)/f and ATP synthase complexes have been produced using antisense RNA techniques. Acta 1706, 2005, p. 12-39 UPSC Preparation (Prelims, Mains, Interview) Strategy & Current Affairs – contact 9986190082 Environment & Science and Technology – contact 9986193016 Polity … Cysteine residues of proteins within iron-sulfur centers (Fig. The thylakoid membranes are the site of the photosynthetic light reactions that involve the concerted action of four major protein complexes known as photosystem II (PSII), cytochrome b6f complex, ATP synthase and photosystem I (PSI). Iron-sulfur centers occur mainly as 2Fe-2S or 4Fe-4S centers. The plastohydroquinone (PQH2) formed in the PS II complex is oxidized by the Rieske iron-sulfur center at the binding site adjacent to the lumen. Cyt-f (f = foliar, in leaves) contains, like cyt-c, one heme-c and therefore belongs to the c-type cytochromes. Plastocyanin is soluble in water and is located in the thylakoid lumen. Subsequently PQH2 diffuses across the lipid phase of the membrane to the binding site in the lumenal region of the cyt-b6/f complex where it is oxidized by the Rieske protein and cyt-f to yield reduced plastocyanin. The interplay of PS II and the cyt-b6/f complex electron transport causes the transport of protons from the stroma space to the thylakoid lumen. Cytochromes are divided into three main groups, the cytochromes-, The iron atom in the heme can form up to six coordinative bonds. Of the two plastoquinone molecules (PQ) formed, only one molecule returns to the PS II complex. 3.17). The principle of this transport is explained in the schematic presentation of Figures 3.28 and 3.29. occur in all organisms except a few obligate anaerobes. A proton-motive force is produced throughout this electron transport chain which pumps H+ ions across the membrane and produces a concentration gradient that can be used to power ATP synthase during chemiosmosis.